The Ominous Octopus

Tuesday, August 21, 2012

Hanna Reitsch

Hanna Reitsch was one of the most famous female pilots of all time. She was pretty. She had ability. She was daring. And she was on the wrong side during World War II.

Hanna Reitsch

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Hanna Reitsch

Hanna Reitsch greets well-wishers with the Hitlergruß, or Hitler Salute, on a visit to her hometown of Hirschberg, Silesia, in April, 1941. Karl Hanke, Gauleiter of Lower Silesia, is at left.
Born29 March 1912
Hirschberg, Silesia
Died24 August 1979 (aged 67)
Frankfurt, West Germany
Known foraviator
the only woman awarded the Iron Cross First Class and the Luftwaffe Combined Pilots-Observation Badge in Gold with Diamonds during World War II
Hanna Reitsch (29 March 1912 – 24 August 1979) was a German aviator and the only woman awarded the Iron Cross First Class and the Luftwaffe Combined Pilots-Observation Badge in Gold with Diamonds during World War II. She set over forty aviation altitude and endurance records during her career, both before and after World War II, and several of her international gliding records still stand in 2012.

 Early life

Reitsch in 1936
Reitsch was born in Hirschberg, Silesia on 29 March 1912 to an upper-middle-class family. She had a brother, Kurt, and a sister. Although her mother was a devout Catholic, Reitsch and her siblings were brought up in the Protestant religion of their father,[1] an ophthalmologist who wanted her to become a doctor. Interested in aviation, she thought she might become a flying missionary doctor in North Africa and studied medicine for a time at the Colonial School for Women at Rendsburg.[1] She began flying in 1932 in gliders and left medical school in 1933 at the invitation of Wolf Hirth to become a full-time glider pilot/instructor at Hornberg in Baden-Württemberg. She was soon breaking records, earning a Silver C Badge No 25 in 1934. She flew from Salzburg across the Alps in 1938 in a Sperber Junior.[2]

 Activities during the Third Reich

In 1937 Reitsch was posted to the Luftwaffe testing centre at Rechlin-Lärz Airfield by Ernst Udet. She was a test pilot on the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka and Dornier Do 17 projects. Reitsch was the first female helicopter pilot and one of the few pilots to fly the Focke-Achgelis Fa 61, the first fully controllable helicopter. Her flying skill, desire for publicity and photogenic qualities made her a star of Nazi party propaganda. Physically she was petite in stature, very slender with blonde hair, blue eyes and a "ready smile".[3] She appeared in Nazi Party propaganda throughout the late 1930s and early 1940s. In 1938 she made nightly flights of the Fa 61 helicopter inside the "Deutschlandhalle" at the Berlin Motor Show.

Adolf Hitler awards Hanna Reitsch the Iron Cross 2nd Class in March 1941
At the outbreak of war in 1939 Reitsch was asked to fly many of Germany's latest designs, among them the rocket-propelled Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet as well as several larger bombers on which she tested various mechanisms for cutting barrage balloon cables. A crash on her fifth Me 163 flight badly injured Reitsch, who reportedly insisted on writing her post-flight report before falling unconscious and spending five months in hospital. Reitsch became Adolf Hitler's favourite pilot and was one of only two women awarded the Iron Cross during World War II. She became close to former fighter pilot and high-ranking Luftwaffe officer Robert Ritter von Greim.
During the winter of 1943-44 she was assigned to the development of suicide aircraft and, under the command of SS-Obersturmbannführer Otto Skorzeny, was the first founding member of the SS-Selbstopferkommando Leonidas (Leonidas Squadron). This project, in which the pilots flew manned bombs and died during the mission, similarly to the later use of Tokkōtai ("Kamikaze") by the Japanese, was proposed by Hitler on 28 February 1944. It is probable that the idea originated with Reitsch during her testing of the Messerschmitt Me 163 in 1942:[citation needed] she was the first to volunteer for the newly formed unit. The programme met with considerable resistance from the Luftwaffe high command and was never activated: even Hitler was initially reluctant to accept its use. The unit was disbanded one year later.


The film Operation Crossbow began a popular myth that early guidance and stabilisation problems with the V-1 flying bomb were solved during a daring test flight by Reitsch in a V-1 modified for manned operation. However, in her autobiography Fliegen, mein Leben, Reitsch recalled other test pilots had been killed or gravely injured while trying to land the piloted version of the V1 (known as the Reichenberg), so she made test flights late in the war to learn why and found the craft's extremely high stall speed was thwarting the pilots, who had no experience landing at extremely high speeds. Reitsch's background with the very fast and dangerous-to-land Me 163, along with simulated landings at a safe high altitude, led her to a successful landing of the Reichenberg at over 200 km/h (120 mph).


A Fieseler Fi 156 Storch similar to the one Reitsch landed in the Tiergarten near the Brandenburg Gate during the Battle of Berlin
Hitler, during the last days of the war after dismissing Hermann Göring as head of the Luftwaffe for what he saw as an act of treason (sending the Göring Telegramme and allegedly attempting a coup d'état), appointed Generaloberst Robert Ritter von Greim as head of the Luftwaffe. Von Greim asked Reitsch to fly him into embattled Berlin to meet Hitler. Red Army troops were already in the central area when Reitsch and von Greim arrived on 26 April in a Fieseler Fi 156 Storch. With her long experience at low-altitude flying over Berlin and having already surveyed the road as an escape route with Hitler's personal pilot Hans Baur, Reitsch landed on an improvised airstrip in the Tiergarten near the Brandenburg Gate (von Greim was wounded in the leg when Red Army soldiers fired at the light aircraft during its approach). They made their way to the Führerbunker, where Hitler promoted von Greim to the rank of Generalfeldmarschall and to Hermann Göring's former command of the barely functioning Luftwaffe. During the intense Russian bombardment, Hitler gave Reitsch a cyanide capsule for herself and another for von Greim. She accepted the capsule, fully prepared to die alongside her Führer.[4]
During the evening of 28 April von Greim and Reitsch flew out of Berlin from the same improvised airstrip in an Arado Ar 96 trainer. Von Greim was ordered to get the Luftwaffe to attack the Soviet forces that had just reached Potsdamer Platz and to make sure Heinrich Himmler was punished for his treachery in making unauthorised contact with the Western Allies.[5] Fearing that Hitler was escaping in the plane, troops of the Soviet 3rd Shock Army, which was fighting its way through the Tiergarten from the north, tried to shoot the Arado down but failed, the plane taking off successfully.[6][7]


Reitsch was soon captured along with von Greim and the two were interviewed together by American military intelligence officers.[8] When asked about being ordered to leave the Führerbunker on 28 April 1945, Reitsch and von Greim reportedly repeated the same answer, "It was the blackest day when we could not die at our Führer's side." Reitsch also said, "We should all kneel down in reverence and prayer before the altar of the Fatherland." When the interviewers asked what she meant by "Altar of the Fatherland" she answered, "Why, the Führer's bunker in Berlin..."[9] She was held and interrogated for eighteen months. Her companion, von Greim, committed suicide on 24 May. Her father shot and killed her mother, her sister, and her sister's three children before killing himself during the last days of the war after expulsion by the Polish communists from their hometown of Hirschberg.[10]

 Later flying career

After her release Reitsch settled in Frankfurt am Main. Following the war German citizens were barred from flying powered aircraft but within a few years gliding was allowed, which she took up. In 1952 Reitsch won third place in the World Gliding Championships in Spain (the only woman to compete). She continued to break records, including the women's altitude record (6,848 m (22,467 ft)). She became German champion in 1955.
During the mid-1950s Reitsch was interviewed on film and talked about her wartime flight tests of the Fa 61, Me 262, and Me 163. In 1959 she was invited to India by prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru to begin a gliding centre. In 1961 Reitsch was invited to the White House by US President John F. Kennedy. From 1962 to 1966 she lived in Ghana, where she founded the first black African national gliding school.[11][12]
She gained the Diamond Badge in 1970.[2] Throughout the 1970s, Reitsch broke gliding records in many categories, including the "Women's Out and Return World Record" twice, once in 1976 (715 km (444 mi)) and again in 1979 (802 km (498 mi)) flying along the Appalachian Ridges in the United States. During this time she also finished first in the women's section of the first world helicopter championships.[3]

 Postwar controversy

Although she kept a low profile after the war, she was interviewed and photographed several times in the 1970s, toward the end of her life, by US photo-journalist Ron Laytner. His report on her last interview suggests a lack of contrition on her part about her Nazi involvement. In her closing remarks she is quoted as saying:
And what have we now in Germany? A land of bankers and car-makers. Even our great army has gone soft. Soldiers wear beards and question orders. I am not ashamed to say I believed in National Socialism. I still wear the Iron Cross with diamonds Hitler gave me. But today in all Germany you can't find a single person who voted Adolf Hitler into power... Many Germans feel guilty about the war. But they don't explain the real guilt we share — that we lost.[13]


Reitsch died in Frankfurt at the age of 67 on 24 August 1979, allegedly after a heart attack. She had never married.[14][15]
That same month Eric Brown, a British test pilot who had known her before the war, was surprised to receive a letter from Reitsch in which she reminisced about their shared love of flying, the letter ending with the words; "It began in the bunker and there it shall end". Brown speculated that this may have referred to a suicide pact with von Greim, who may well have been Reitsch's lover: they had both been given cyanide pills by Hitler while in the bunker and Reitsch was known still to have hers. It is possible that she had made a pact with von Greim to follow him in committing suicide, albeit at a different time in order to dampen any rumours of their affair. Her death was announced shortly after Brown received this letter, which led him to wonder whether she had finally carried out her side of the pact and had used the suicide pill at last: apparently no post-mortem inquest was carried out on her body.[16]

 List of awards and world records

  • 1932: women's gliding endurance record (5.5 hours)
  • 1936: women's gliding distance record (305 km (190 mi))
  • 1937: first woman to cross the Alps in a glider
  • 1937: the first woman in the world to be promoted to flight captain by Colonel Ernst Udet
  • 1937: world distance record in a helicopter (109 km (68 mi))
  • 1938: the first person to fly a helicopter Focke-Wulf Fw 61 inside an enclosed space (Deutschlandhalle)
  • 1938: winner of German national gliding competition Sylt-Breslau (Silesia)
  • 1939: women's world record in gliding for point-to-point flight.[17]
  • 1943: While in the Luftwaffe, the first woman to pilot a rocket plane (Messerschmitt Me 163). She survived a disastrous crash though with severe injuries and because of this she became the first and only German woman to receive the Iron Cross First Class.
  • 1944: the first woman in the world to pilot a jet aircraft at the Luftwaffe research centre at Reichlin during the trials of the Messerschmitt Me 262 and Heinkel He 162
  • 1952: third place in the World Gliding Championships in Spain together with her team-mate Lisbeth Häfner
  • 1955: German gliding champion
  • 1956: German gliding distance record (370 km (230 mi))
  • 1957: German gliding altitude record (6,848 m (22,467 ft))

 Books by Hanna Reitsch

  • Fliegen, mein Leben. 4th ed. Munich: Herbig, 2001. ISBN 3-7766-2197-4 (Autobiography)
  • Ich flog in Afrika für Nkrumahs Ghana. 2nd ed. Munich: Herbig, 1979. ISBN 3-7766-0929-X (original title: Ich flog für Kwame Nkrumah).
  • Das Unzerstörbare in meinem Leben. 7th ed. Munich: Herbig, 1992. ISBN 3-7766-0975-3.
  • Höhen und Tiefen. 1945 bis zur Gegenwart. Munich: Heyne, 1984. ISBN 3-453-01963-6.
  • Höhen und Tiefen. 1945 bis zur Gegenwart. 2nd expanded ed. Munich/Berlin: Herbig, 1978. ISBN 3-7766-0890-0.

 Portrayal in the media

Hanna Reitsch has been portrayed by the following actresses in film and television productions.

 See also


  1. ^ a b Reitsch, Hanna (2009). The Sky My Kingdom: Memoirs of the Famous German World War II Test Pilot. Drexel Hill, Pennsylvania: Casemate Publishers. Chapter One: The Child Who Watched the Sky.
  2. ^ a b Slater, AE (December 1979/January 1980). "Obituary". Sailplane & Gliding (British Gliding Association) 30 (6): 302.
  3. ^ a b wwiihistorymagazine.com, Profiles, May 2005, retrieved 6 May 2008
  4. ^ William L. Shirer, The Rise And Fall of The Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960, ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0, p. 1454.
  5. ^ The Luftwaffe order differs in different sources: Beevor states it was to attack Potsdamer Platz, but Ziemke states it was to support General Wenck's 12th Army attack (towards Potsdam) - both agree that he was also ordered to make sure Himmler was punished.(Ziemke 1969, p. 118 Beevor 2002, p. 342)
  6. ^ Ziemke 1969, p. 118.
  7. ^ Beevor 2002, p. 342.
  8. ^ "Hitler's Woman Pilot Seized". New York Times. 10 October 1945. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10817FF3B5416738FDDA90994D8415B8588F1D3. Retrieved 2008-07-07. "The question whether Adolf Hitler is dead or alive may be answered by the testimony of Hanna Reitsch, woman Luftwaffe pilot, who was in a Berlin bomb shelter with him a few hours before the Russians captured it. She was arrested in the United States zone of occupation today and is being interrogated."
  9. ^ Hans Dollinger with Hans Adolf Jacobsen, tr. Arnold Pomerans, The Decline and Fall of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan: A Pictorial History of the Final Days of World War II, New York: Crown, [1968], OCLC 712594, p. 234.
  10. ^ Piszkiewicz, Dennis, From Nazi Test Pilot to Hitler's Bunker: The Fantastic Flights of Hanna Reitsch, Praeger Publishers, 1997. ISBN 978-0-275-95456-7, from summary by Emerson Thomas McMullen, retrieved 8 January 2010
  11. ^ The school was commanded by JES de Graft-Hayford, with gliders such as the double-seated Schleicher K7, Slingsby T21, and a Bergfalk, along with a single-seated Schleicher K8.
  12. ^ Afua Hirsch (16 April 2012). "Hitler's pilot helped Ghana's women to fly". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/apr/16/hitler-pilot-women-fly-ghana. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
  13. ^ Ron Laytner, "The first astronaut: tiny, daring Hanna", The Deseret News 19 February 1981, pp. C1+, p. 12C.
  14. ^ "Hanna Reitsch, 67. A Top German Pilot. Much-Decorated Favorite of Hitler Was Last to Fly Out of Berlin Was Cleared by U.S. Hitler Gave Her Iron Cross In Voluntary Suicide Squad.". New York Times. 31 August 1979. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50F13F7345D12728DDDA80B94D0405B898BF1D3. Retrieved 2008-07-07. "Hanna Reitsch, the leading German female pilot and a much-decorated favorite of Hitler who flew the last plane out of Berlin hours before the city fell in 1945, died Friday at her home in Bonn, West Germany. She was 67 years old."
  15. ^ "Hanna Reitsch, Test Pilot for Hitler". Washington Post. 1 September 1974. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost_historical/access/130126652.html?dids=130126652:130126652&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=SEP+01%2C+1979&author=&pub=The+Washington+Post&desc=Hanna+Reitsch%2C+Test+Pilot+for+Hitler&pqatl=google. Retrieved 2008-07-07. "Aviation pioneer Hanna Reitsch, 67, who flew the last plane out of burning Berlin before the fall of the Nazis in 1945, died Aug. 24, the West Germany radio has reported."
  16. ^ Wings on my Sleeve pp. 113-114
  17. ^ "Hanna Reitsch (1912-1979)" at monash.edu.au
  18. ^ "Hitler: The Last Ten Days (1973)". IMDb.com. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0070184/. Retrieved 8 May 2008.
  19. ^ "The Death of Adolf Hitler (1973) (TV)". IMDb.com. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0283307/. Retrieved 8 May 2008.
  20. ^ "Untergang, Der (2004)". IMDb.com. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0363163/. Retrieved 8 May 2008.


 Further reading

  • Helden der Wehrmacht - Unsterbliche deutsche Soldaten. Munich: FZ, 2004. ISBN 3-924309-53-1.

 External links

Hitler was not voted into power. Von Hindenberg won the election and Hitler only rose to power after Von Hindenberg appointed Hitler as his successor, then left it to him when he died. Once in office, Hitler declared himself absolute leader of Germany. So the only one that really gave him that position was himself.

 I would have thought they would have taken the cyanide pill away from Hanna Reitsch at the end of the war, especially as some important people in nazi Germany had already killed themselves with them. But at any rate, at age 67 Hanna Reitsch was old enough to have died of a heart attack.

Some people said Hanna Reitsch was Hitler's girlfriend, a story that doesn't really seem to have anything to it. It's more likely that people simply linked them because she was famous, she was around Hitler, and she was even one of the last people to have seen him alive.

Another story is that Hanna Reitsch was a female fighter pilot. She flew some fighter planes as a test pilot, but never flew them in combat. There were no female fighter pilots in Germany, although there were some in Russia. Hanna Reitsch did volunteer to be a suicide pilot, but was turned down.

Then there's the story that Hanna Reitsch was the first astronaut. This could be due to confusion between the V-1, which was jet propelled, and the V-2, which was a rocket. The Germans had a piloted version of the V-2 rocket in the planning stage when the war ended, so it never flew.

But she was certainly a famous pilot, and another thing that isn't always obvious in some accounts is that she was also a glamour girl. One of the things the nazis wanted her for was propaganda, because she was photogenic. She can even be compared to Marlene Dietrich and Carole Landis on the allied side in that she entertained the troops on the Eastern front by making personal appearences in an effort to help keep up their morale.

But there was a difference in that Hanna Reitsch was in the employ of an agressor nation which was largely responsible for the war. The people of Germany had been told that if they followed Hitler, he would save them, but he did nothing of the kind. His war brought nothing but death and destruction to his people.

Hanna Reitsch lived on after the war, but for the rest of her life, she was seen as being in the shadow of the swastika.

1936- Hanna Reitsch with Seeadler Glider.

1936. Hanna Reitsch is frequently shown shaking hands in these pictures.

South American glider tour - the pilots and their planes.

Another picture from the same tour, with everyone named.

Hanna Reitsch flying the Fw 61, one of the first hellicopters, in 1938.

Hann Reitsch flies the hellicopter inside a stadium.

Hanna Reitsch in the cockpit of an early hellicopter. Erst Udet, the shorter man, was another famous flyer..

Hanna Reitsch with Alexander Lippisch and Willy Messerschmitt.

Adolph Hitler with Hanna Reitsch

Werner Von Braun with Hanna Reitsch, after the war.

Karl Ritter and Hanna Reitsch in 1968.
Hanna Reitsch with Jimmy Doolittle.

Piloted version of the V-1

Original and piloted versions of the V-1.

Messerschmitt 163 Komet, which was rocket powered and dangerous. Hanna Reitsch had a bad landing while testing this plane and was seriously injured.

Me 262, which was jet propelled.

He 162, another jet test-flown by Hanna Reitsch..

Watch HITLER'S IDOLS #2, a documentary about Hanna Reitsch, on youtube:

Aircraft of World War II:

Hanna Reitsch at Grey Falcon.com:

Hanna Reitsch at Carolyn Yeager.com:

Ladies Love Taildraggers ( Aviatrix site ):

V-1 "Buzz Bomb":

Woman Pilot Magazine:

Women Pilots In WW2 ( US ):

Sunday, August 19, 2012

Sgt. Rock

I think Sgt. Rock is probably the most popular character in war comics. And Joe Kubert is probably the artist people would tend to associate with the character.

Sgt. Rock

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sgt. Rock
Sgt. Rock from Our Army At War #196, artist Joe Kubert
Publication information
PublisherDC Comics
First appearanceOur Army at War #83
(June 1959)
Created byRobert Kanigher (writer)
Joe Kubert (artist)
In-story information
Full nameFrank Rock
Place of originEarth
Team affiliationsUnited States Army
Easy Company
Suicide Squad
AbilitiesTrained marksman and U.S. Military combatant
Sgt. Frank Rock is a fictional infantry non-commissioned officer during World War II in the DC Comics Universe. He first appeared in Our Army at War #83 (June 1959), and was created by Robert Kanigher and Joe Kubert.


 Publication history

Sgt. Rock's prototype[1] first appeared in G.I. Combat #68 (January 1959). His rank is not given in this story; instead, he is merely called "The Rock." The Rock returned as a sergeant in Our Army at War #81 (April 1959)[2] named "Sgt. Rocky" with his unit, Easy Company (the precise US Army infantry regiment to which Easy belonged was never identified during the history of the character). In this last prototype appearance with the Easy Company (as opposed to the nameless infantryman with a nickname, as he was portrayed previously), the story was actually written by Bob Haney, but the character's creator, Robert Kanigher was the editor. He would go on to create the bulk of the stories with Joe Kubert as the artist. In Issue #82 (May 1959), He is called "Sgt. Rock" (Name only) and by Issue #83 (June 1959), he makes his first full appearance as Sgt. Rock.
Sgt. Rock steadily gained popularity, until, in 1977, the name of the comic was changed to Sgt. Rock. The comic ran until Sgt. Rock #422 (July 1988). In addition to the semi-regular comic, several "digests" were sold, under the DC Special Blue Ribbon Digest banner, reprinting stories from Our Army at War or Sgt. Rock. Some were subtitled as OAAW or Sgt. Rock, some as Sgt. Rock's Prize Battle Tales. (The Prize Battle Tales title was also used on earlier 80 page annual specials). The digest format was 4-13/16" x 6-5/8", softcover, with 98 full colour pages and no advertisements.
A 21-issue run of reprints followed from 1988 to 1991, and two Sgt. Rock Specials with new content saw publication in 1992 and 1994. A Christmas themed story appeared in DCU Holiday Bash II in 1997, again featuring new content.
According to John Wells, in Fanzing 36 (July 2001), an online fan magazine:
Sgt. Rock's complex family tree comes by way of creator Robert Kanigher, who added new (and often conflicting) branches throughout the character's original 29 year run. Rock's father was variously described as having died in a mine cave-in (OAAW # 231), in World War I (# 275 and 419) or in a Pittsburgh steel mill (# 347). Robin Snyder (in a letter mistakenly attributed in # 353 to Mike Tiefenbacher) suggested that one of the deaths occurred to Rock's stepfather and his existence was confirmed in # 400. As things currently stand, it was father John Rock who died in combat and stepfather John Anderson who perished in a cave-in. The third death, as theorized above, probably occurred to a father figure that Frank Rock worked with at the steel mill.
In at least one Sgt. Rock comic book published in the late 1960s, it was revealed that Sgt. Rock had a brother who was an infantry officer in the U.S. Marine Corps, fighting in the Pacific Theater. In this episode, Sgt. Rock told his fellow-soldiers about a weird combat incident that his brother had taken part in on a Pacific island, shown in the comic in a "flashback" style.
A Viet Nam soldier by the name of Adam Rock appears in Swamp Thing #16 (May 1975), though it's never specifically stated if he is intended to be a relative of Frank Rock.
DC Comics published Sgt. Rock: The Lost Battalion, written and drawn by William Tucci, starting in November 2008. The story places Rock and Easy Company with the 1st Battalion, 141st Infantry, which was surrounded by German forces in the Vosges Mountains on 24 October 1944 and eventually rescued by the Asian-American 442nd Regimental Combat Team.[3][4]

 Fictional character biography

During World War II, Sgt. Rock fought in the infantry branch of the U.S. Army in the European Theatre and eventually rose to authority within his unit, Easy Company. The unit was a collection of disparate individuals who managed to participate in every major action in the European war. Rock's dogtag number was 409966, which had been, it was claimed, Robert Kanigher's own military serial number.
Robert Kanigher mused in letters columns in the 1970s and 1980s that Rock probably belonged to "The Big Red One" (First US Infantry Division) given his appearance on battlefields in North Africa, Italy, and Northwest Europe. Rock's backstory was fleshed out in different comics over the years; generally he is considered to have come from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he worked in a steel mill. Enlisting after the attack on Pearl Harbor, he went to North Africa as a private but promotion came quickly as his superiors were killed, to assistant squad leader, squad leader, and then platoon sergeant. During the main series, his unit is only ever given as "Easy Company", but no regiment or division is named nor is unit insignia ever shown. Rock is shown to have two siblings (Sgt. Rock #421) Larry, a marine and Amy, a nun. In the 2009 six-issue mini-series "Sgt. Rock: The Lost Battalion" Rock's unit is still referred to as "Easy Company" but is of the 141st Infantry Regiment. However, in the closing pages of the last issue, the narration states that, following the end of the story, "As usual, Sgt. Rock's 'Combat-Happy Joes' moved out to fill the ranks of another Easy Company left fractured by war," moving them to the 15th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Division, under 2nd Lieutenant Audie Murphy.[5] A famous tagline of Rock's is: "Nothin's easy in Easy Company."
Rock also usually wears the chevrons and rockers of a Master Sergeant on his uniform and also applied, oversize, to the front of his helmet.
It is likely Rock's official position in Easy Company was of senior platoon sergeant though dialogue and scripts are usually vague on his actual responsibilities and duties. He usually leads patrols and appears to have powers of command over the men of the company. Several officer characters also appeared in the comic, as both platoon and company commanders, all of whom were regarded by Rock as superiors. Easy's commander was usually referred to as "the skipper" by Rock. Rock in turn was referred to by others as the "topkick", or senior non-commissioned officer in the company. Most infantry companies did not have master sergeants; significantly, Rock does not have the diamond of a first sergeant on his rank insignia.

Powers and abilities

  • Rock is a crack shot, able to shoot down several German fighter planes with a single submachine gun, and able to throw hand grenades with amazing accuracy.
  • Rock is a highly effective close combat fighter, mostly shown using a style of streetfighting mixed with boxing.
  • Rock seems to have close to superhuman endurance and strength, surviving large number of gunshot wounds, fragments from hand grenades, exposure to freezing water and other hazards. Rock's powers seem to be more realistic in Bob Kanigher's stories than in Joe Kubert's.


  • The classic Rock was usually dressed in olive drab fatigues, with a .45 caliber Thompson submachine gun (although sometimes he's been shown using an M50 Reising instead) and .45 caliber Colt M1911A1 Semi-automatic pistol as his armament. Oddly, the classic artwork almost always depicts Rock with an M-1 Garand cartridge belt which would be useless to him, as well as two belts of .50 caliber ammunition, which Rock considers lucky charms. Artists John Severin and Russ Heath sometimes attempted a more realistic portrayal of Rock's equipment, but the .50 caliber ammunition remained a personal trademark.
  • Rock is always shown with a number of hand grenades secured to his equipment.

 Fates of Sgt. Rock

The ultimate fate of Sgt. Frank Rock is complicated. There were initially two versions of the character, one residing on Earth-One and the other residing on Earth-Two. According to a number of stories, he was killed on the last day of the war by the last enemy bullet fired. However, DC has also published a number of stories incorporating a post-war Rock into the modern stories of superheroes, including appearances alongside Superman and the Suicide Squad.
In stories told after the demise of his own comic book, Rock's character was revived, explained to have survived the war, and went on to perform covert missions for the United States government. He also battled his old foe, the Iron Major, and went on an adventure to Dinosaur Island with his old second in command, Bulldozer. According to John Wells:
Kanigher had established Frank's post-war survival in OAAW #168, wherein he had Rock visit the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, and Bob Haney picked up on that fact in The Brave and the Bold. In issue #84, he'd had Rock and Easy cross paths with Bruce (Batman) Wayne during the war (in an episode obviously set on Earth-Two) and followed up with a present-day sequel in Brave & the Bold #96. In that one, Bruce arrived at the United States Embassy in South America and was introduced to "our Military Attache and Chief of Embassy Security ... Sergeant Rock, U.S. Army." Two subsequent present-day episodes found Rock tracking a Satanic figure that he believed was Adolf Hitler (B&B #108) and an Easy Company "ghost" that he'd been ordered to execute at the Battle of the Bulge (B&B #117). In the bizarre Brave & the Bold #124, Bob Haney and Jim Aparo actually guest-starred as Rock and Batman trailed a terrorist organization called the 1000.
Following this, he appeared as a general and a Chief of Staff for Lex Luthor's administration. However, Frank Rock was involved with an incarnation of the Suicide Squad. At the end of the title, he peels off a mask and walks away from the team, while his companion "Bulldozer," assumed to be the original, stands up from his wheelchair, comments on how it was good to feel young again, and also walks away. Whether this was the real Frank Rock in disguise or an impostor is unknown; the series concludes with the line "Frank Rock died in 1945." The use of the Rock character in post-war stories had one major effect on Rock's backstory, according to Wells:
All of the super-hero crossovers were more than Kanigher could take. In the letter columns of 1978's Sgt. Rock #316 and 323 and 1980's Sgt. Rock #347 and 348, he announced that his hero had not lived past 1945, blunting most of Haney's Brave and the Bold episodes if nothing else. "It is inevitable and wholly in character that neither Rock nor Easy survived the closing days of the war," he proclaimed.
Indeed in the letter column for Sgt. Rock #374, Kanigher stated that:
As far as I'm concerned ROCK is the only authentic World War II Soldier. For obvious reasons. He and Easy Company live only, and will eventually die, to the last man, in World War II.
The first use of the Rock character after the demise of the series was an issue of Swamp Thing, six months after the release of Sgt. Rock #422. The story was set in May 1945, intimating that Sgt. Rock had survived the war in Europe and raised the question of whether Rock transferred to the Pacific theatre.
In the backup story "Snapshot: Remembrance" in the retrospective mini-series DC Universe: Legacies #4, set during a reunion on July 4, 1976, it is revealed that Sgt. Rock did die, on the last day of the war, using his body to shield a small child who had wandered into in a crossfire. Easy Company learns later that the final bullet that killed him was the last bullet fired in the war. The other attendees are Jeb Stuart of the Haunted Tank, the Losers, Gravedigger, Mademoiselle Marie (and her son, who is a soldier and the others think resembles Sgt. Rock) and possibly the Unknown Soldier.[6]


 In other media


  • Sgt. Rock (alongside Easy Company) appeared in the Justice League episode, "The Savage Time" voiced by Fred Dryer.
  • Sgt. Rock appears in the Batman: The Brave and the Bold episode "The Plague of the Prototypes", voiced by Fred Tatasciore. He and G.I. Robot team up with Batman to fight Nazi soldiers. After G.I. Robot sacrifices itself, he gets teary-eyed and continues to fight.


 Merchandise and collectibles

  • A line of 3-3/4" action figures bearing the SGT. ROCK name was released in the 1980s by Remco Toys, likely as a result of the popularity of Hasbro's G.I. Joe toy line. The figures had little resemblance to the World War II characters of the comic books. The Sgt. Rock figure was depicted in Vietnam-era fatigues and gear and had an M-16 rifle instead of a Thompson submachine gun. Other generic figures were sold, with no other characters recognizable from the comics. These US troops also had Vietnam-era equipment and helmets/helmet covers or berets, and were collectively referred to as "Tough Action Soldiers." "Enemy" soldiers were simply toys produced from the same molds used to make the US soldiers, painted black with blue helmets. Each figure came with a plastic dog tag on which purchasers could ink their name and rank. A serial number was printed on a paper sticker affixed to the plastic tag, which also came with a silver coloured string to suspend the tag around the neck. Playsets included plastic machinegun and mortar bunkers. The quality of these toys was very low; soft plastic was used, and joints had limited movement, especially compared to the much superior G.I. Joe line of 3-3/4" action figures.
  • There were also a range of diecast metal vehicles, produced by Universal Toys for Azrak-Hamway of New York. These were packaged on cards similar to the Remco Action Figures. The range included two tanks, a Jeep, a staff car and an ambulance.
  • In 2002, a limited edition of 12" SGT. ROCK figures was released by Hasbro, as part of the 12" GI Joe line, including four other characters from the comic book series; Bulldozer, Little Sure Shot, Jackie Johnson and Wildman. The figures wore proper World War II-era fatigues and carried the same weapons they carried in the comic books (though the Bulldozer figure carries an M-1 rifle instead of an air-cooled Browning .30 calibre machine gun). A female figure was also released, portraying French Resistance fighter Mademoiselle Marie, Sgt. Rock's only love interest during the comic book series. A number of playsets were also produced by Dreams and Visions in 2003, for either Sgt. Rock or any other 12" figures.



Sgt. Rock was ranked as the 183rd greatest comic book character of all time by Wizard magazine.[15] IGN also listed Sgt. Rock as the 78th greatest comic book hero of all time stating that Sgt. Rock represents the epitome of DC’s oftentimes overlooked World War II comics.[16]

 Collected editions

The series has been collected into a number of trade paperbacks:
TitleMaterial collectedPagesISBN#
Sgt. Rock Archives, Volume 1Our Army at War #81-96, G.I. Combat #68228ISBN 1-56389-841-1
Sgt. Rock Archives, Volume 2Our Army at War #97-110207ISBN 1-4012-0146-6
Sgt. Rock Archives, Volume 3Our Army at War #111-125228ISBN 1-4012-0410-4
Sgt. Rock's Combat Tales, Volume 1Star Spangled War Stories #72, G.I. Combat #56, 68, Our Army at War #83-84, 87-90128ISBN 1-4012-0794-4
Showcase Presents: Sgt. Rock, Volume 1G.I. Combat #68, Our Army at War #81-117544ISBN 978-1-4012-1713-6
Showcase Presents: Sgt. Rock, Volume 2Our Army at War #118-148520ISBN 978-1-4012-1984-0
Showcase Presents: Sgt. Rock, Volume 3Our Army at War #149-163, 165-172 and 174-180496ISBN 978-1-4012-2771-5
Sgt. Rock: The ProphecySgt. Rock: The Prophecy #1-6144ISBN 978-1-4012-1248-3
Sgt. Rock: Between Hell and a Hard PlaceSgt. Rock: Between Hell and a Hard Place #1-6144ISBN 1-4012-0054-0
Sgt. Rock: The Lost BattalionSgt. Rock: The Lost Battalion #1-6160ISBN 978-1-4012-2533-9


  1. ^ GI Combat #68 was previously thought to be his 1st appearance
  2. ^ Irvine, Alex; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1950s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. "In "The Rock of Easy Co.!" written by Robert Kanigher and Bob Haney, with art by Ross Andru, the reader was introduced to Sgt. Frank Rock of Easy Company."
  3. ^ Tucci brings Sgt. Rock back in "The Lost Battalion", Comic Book Resources, September 13, 2007
  4. ^ Baltimore: Tucci Presents The Return of Sgt. Rock, Comic Book Resources, September 27, 2008
  5. ^ Sgt. Rock and the Lost Battalion #6
  6. ^ DC Universe: Legacies #4 (October 2010)
  7. ^ Flashpoint: Lois Lane and the Resistance #2 (July 2011)
  8. ^ Cox locked up for WB's 'Rock' duty
  9. ^ Sgt. Rock Movie Update
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ [2]
  12. ^ [3]
  13. ^ http://www.videogamesblogger.com/2009/07/26/official-dc-universe-online-character-list.htm
  14. ^ Partial screen shot of the end credits of Predator with Shane Black
  15. ^ "Wizard's top 200 characters. External link consists of a forum site summing up the top 200 characters of Wizard Magazine since the real site that contains the list is broken.". Wizard magazine.. http://herochat.com/forum/index.php?topic=170859.0. Retrieved May 7, 2011.
  16. ^ "Sgt. Rock is number 78". IGN. http://www.ign.com/top/comic-book-heroes/78. Retrieved May 11, 2011.

 External links



Sgt. Rock and all his friends.