From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hanna Reitsch greets well-wishers with the Hitlergruß, or Hitler Salute, on a visit to her hometown of Hirschberg, Silesia, in April, 1941. Karl Hanke, Gauleiter of Lower Silesia, is at left.
|Born||29 March 1912|
|Died||24 August 1979 (aged 67)|
Frankfurt, West Germany
the only woman awarded the Iron Cross First Class and the Luftwaffe Combined Pilots-Observation Badge in Gold with Diamonds during World War II
Hanna Reitsch (29 March 1912 – 24 August 1979) was a German aviator and the only woman awarded the Iron Cross First Class and the Luftwaffe Combined Pilots-Observation Badge in Gold with Diamonds during World War II. She set over forty aviation altitude and endurance records during her career, both before and after World War II, and several of her international gliding records still stand in 2012.
Reitsch was born in Hirschberg, Silesia on 29 March 1912 to an upper-middle-class family. She had a brother, Kurt, and a sister. Although her mother was a devout Catholic, Reitsch and her siblings were brought up in the Protestant religion of their father, an ophthalmologist who wanted her to become a doctor. Interested in aviation, she thought she might become a flying missionary doctor in North Africa and studied medicine for a time at the Colonial School for Women at Rendsburg. She began flying in 1932 in gliders and left medical school in 1933 at the invitation of Wolf Hirth to become a full-time glider pilot/instructor at Hornberg in Baden-Württemberg. She was soon breaking records, earning a Silver C Badge No 25 in 1934. She flew from Salzburg across the Alps in 1938 in a Sperber Junior.
Activities during the Third Reich
In 1937 Reitsch was posted to the Luftwaffe testing centre at Rechlin-Lärz Airfield by Ernst Udet. She was a test pilot on the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka and Dornier Do 17 projects. Reitsch was the first female helicopter pilot and one of the few pilots to fly the Focke-Achgelis Fa 61, the first fully controllable helicopter. Her flying skill, desire for publicity and photogenic qualities made her a star of Nazi party propaganda. Physically she was petite in stature, very slender with blonde hair, blue eyes and a "ready smile". She appeared in Nazi Party propaganda throughout the late 1930s and early 1940s. In 1938 she made nightly flights of the Fa 61 helicopter inside the "Deutschlandhalle" at the Berlin Motor Show.
At the outbreak of war in 1939 Reitsch was asked to fly many of Germany's latest designs, among them the rocket-propelled Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet as well as several larger bombers on which she tested various mechanisms for cutting barrage balloon cables. A crash on her fifth Me 163 flight badly injured Reitsch, who reportedly insisted on writing her post-flight report before falling unconscious and spending five months in hospital. Reitsch became Adolf Hitler's favourite pilot and was one of only two women awarded the Iron Cross during World War II. She became close to former fighter pilot and high-ranking Luftwaffe officer Robert Ritter von Greim.
During the winter of 1943-44 she was assigned to the development of suicide aircraft and, under the command of SS-Obersturmbannführer Otto Skorzeny, was the first founding member of the SS-Selbstopferkommando Leonidas (Leonidas Squadron). This project, in which the pilots flew manned bombs and died during the mission, similarly to the later use of Tokkōtai ("Kamikaze") by the Japanese, was proposed by Hitler on 28 February 1944. It is probable that the idea originated with Reitsch during her testing of the Messerschmitt Me 163 in 1942: she was the first to volunteer for the newly formed unit. The programme met with considerable resistance from the Luftwaffe high command and was never activated: even Hitler was initially reluctant to accept its use. The unit was disbanded one year later.
The film Operation Crossbow began a popular myth that early guidance and stabilisation problems with the V-1 flying bomb were solved during a daring test flight by Reitsch in a V-1 modified for manned operation. However, in her autobiography Fliegen, mein Leben, Reitsch recalled other test pilots had been killed or gravely injured while trying to land the piloted version of the V1 (known as the Reichenberg), so she made test flights late in the war to learn why and found the craft's extremely high stall speed was thwarting the pilots, who had no experience landing at extremely high speeds. Reitsch's background with the very fast and dangerous-to-land Me 163, along with simulated landings at a safe high altitude, led her to a successful landing of the Reichenberg at over 200 km/h (120 mph).
Hitler, during the last days of the war after dismissing Hermann Göring as head of the Luftwaffe for what he saw as an act of treason (sending the Göring Telegramme and allegedly attempting a coup d'état), appointed Generaloberst Robert Ritter von Greim as head of the Luftwaffe. Von Greim asked Reitsch to fly him into embattled Berlin to meet Hitler. Red Army troops were already in the central area when Reitsch and von Greim arrived on 26 April in a Fieseler Fi 156 Storch. With her long experience at low-altitude flying over Berlin and having already surveyed the road as an escape route with Hitler's personal pilot Hans Baur, Reitsch landed on an improvised airstrip in the Tiergarten near the Brandenburg Gate (von Greim was wounded in the leg when Red Army soldiers fired at the light aircraft during its approach). They made their way to the Führerbunker, where Hitler promoted von Greim to the rank of Generalfeldmarschall and to Hermann Göring's former command of the barely functioning Luftwaffe. During the intense Russian bombardment, Hitler gave Reitsch a cyanide capsule for herself and another for von Greim. She accepted the capsule, fully prepared to die alongside her Führer.
During the evening of 28 April von Greim and Reitsch flew out of Berlin from the same improvised airstrip in an Arado Ar 96 trainer. Von Greim was ordered to get the Luftwaffe to attack the Soviet forces that had just reached Potsdamer Platz and to make sure Heinrich Himmler was punished for his treachery in making unauthorised contact with the Western Allies. Fearing that Hitler was escaping in the plane, troops of the Soviet 3rd Shock Army, which was fighting its way through the Tiergarten from the north, tried to shoot the Arado down but failed, the plane taking off successfully.
Reitsch was soon captured along with von Greim and the two were interviewed together by American military intelligence officers. When asked about being ordered to leave the Führerbunker on 28 April 1945, Reitsch and von Greim reportedly repeated the same answer, "It was the blackest day when we could not die at our Führer's side." Reitsch also said, "We should all kneel down in reverence and prayer before the altar of the Fatherland." When the interviewers asked what she meant by "Altar of the Fatherland" she answered, "Why, the Führer's bunker in Berlin..." She was held and interrogated for eighteen months. Her companion, von Greim, committed suicide on 24 May. Her father shot and killed her mother, her sister, and her sister's three children before killing himself during the last days of the war after expulsion by the Polish communists from their hometown of Hirschberg.
Later flying career
After her release Reitsch settled in Frankfurt am Main. Following the war German citizens were barred from flying powered aircraft but within a few years gliding was allowed, which she took up. In 1952 Reitsch won third place in the World Gliding Championships in Spain (the only woman to compete). She continued to break records, including the women's altitude record (6,848 m (22,467 ft)). She became German champion in 1955.
During the mid-1950s Reitsch was interviewed on film and talked about her wartime flight tests of the Fa 61, Me 262, and Me 163. In 1959 she was invited to India by prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru to begin a gliding centre. In 1961 Reitsch was invited to the White House by US President John F. Kennedy. From 1962 to 1966 she lived in Ghana, where she founded the first black African national gliding school.
She gained the Diamond Badge in 1970. Throughout the 1970s, Reitsch broke gliding records in many categories, including the "Women's Out and Return World Record" twice, once in 1976 (715 km (444 mi)) and again in 1979 (802 km (498 mi)) flying along the Appalachian Ridges in the United States. During this time she also finished first in the women's section of the first world helicopter championships.
Although she kept a low profile after the war, she was interviewed and photographed several times in the 1970s, toward the end of her life, by US photo-journalist Ron Laytner. His report on her last interview suggests a lack of contrition on her part about her Nazi involvement. In her closing remarks she is quoted as saying:
And what have we now in Germany? A land of bankers and car-makers. Even our great army has gone soft. Soldiers wear beards and question orders. I am not ashamed to say I believed in National Socialism. I still wear the Iron Cross with diamonds Hitler gave me. But today in all Germany you can't find a single person who voted Adolf Hitler into power... Many Germans feel guilty about the war. But they don't explain the real guilt we share — that we lost.
Reitsch died in Frankfurt at the age of 67 on 24 August 1979, allegedly after a heart attack. She had never married.
That same month Eric Brown, a British test pilot who had known her before the war, was surprised to receive a letter from Reitsch in which she reminisced about their shared love of flying, the letter ending with the words; "It began in the bunker and there it shall end". Brown speculated that this may have referred to a suicide pact with von Greim, who may well have been Reitsch's lover: they had both been given cyanide pills by Hitler while in the bunker and Reitsch was known still to have hers. It is possible that she had made a pact with von Greim to follow him in committing suicide, albeit at a different time in order to dampen any rumours of their affair. Her death was announced shortly after Brown received this letter, which led him to wonder whether she had finally carried out her side of the pact and had used the suicide pill at last: apparently no post-mortem inquest was carried out on her body.
List of awards and world records
- 1932: women's gliding endurance record (5.5 hours)
- 1936: women's gliding distance record (305 km (190 mi))
- 1937: first woman to cross the Alps in a glider
- 1937: the first woman in the world to be promoted to flight captain by Colonel Ernst Udet
- 1937: world distance record in a helicopter (109 km (68 mi))
- 1938: the first person to fly a helicopter Focke-Wulf Fw 61 inside an enclosed space (Deutschlandhalle)
- 1938: winner of German national gliding competition Sylt-Breslau (Silesia)
- 1939: women's world record in gliding for point-to-point flight.
- 1943: While in the Luftwaffe, the first woman to pilot a rocket plane (Messerschmitt Me 163). She survived a disastrous crash though with severe injuries and because of this she became the first and only German woman to receive the Iron Cross First Class.
- 1944: the first woman in the world to pilot a jet aircraft at the Luftwaffe research centre at Reichlin during the trials of the Messerschmitt Me 262 and Heinkel He 162
- 1952: third place in the World Gliding Championships in Spain together with her team-mate Lisbeth Häfner
- 1955: German gliding champion
- 1956: German gliding distance record (370 km (230 mi))
- 1957: German gliding altitude record (6,848 m (22,467 ft))
Books by Hanna Reitsch
- Fliegen, mein Leben. 4th ed. Munich: Herbig, 2001. ISBN 3-7766-2197-4 (Autobiography)
- Ich flog in Afrika für Nkrumahs Ghana. 2nd ed. Munich: Herbig, 1979. ISBN 3-7766-0929-X (original title: Ich flog für Kwame Nkrumah).
- Das Unzerstörbare in meinem Leben. 7th ed. Munich: Herbig, 1992. ISBN 3-7766-0975-3.
- Höhen und Tiefen. 1945 bis zur Gegenwart. Munich: Heyne, 1984. ISBN 3-453-01963-6.
- Höhen und Tiefen. 1945 bis zur Gegenwart. 2nd expanded ed. Munich/Berlin: Herbig, 1978. ISBN 3-7766-0890-0.
Portrayal in the mediaHanna Reitsch has been portrayed by the following actresses in film and television productions.
- Barbara Ruetting in the 1965 film Operation Crossbow
- Diane Cilento in the 1973 British film Hitler: The Last Ten Days.
- Myvanwy Jenn in the 1973 British television production The Death of Adolf Hitler.
- Anna Thalbach in the 2004 German film Downfall (Der Untergang).
- Reitsch, Hanna (2009). The Sky My Kingdom: Memoirs of the Famous German World War II Test Pilot. Drexel Hill, Pennsylvania: Casemate Publishers. Chapter One: The Child Who Watched the Sky.
- Slater, AE (December 1979/January 1980). "Obituary". Sailplane & Gliding (British Gliding Association) 30 (6): 302.
- wwiihistorymagazine.com, Profiles, May 2005, retrieved 6 May 2008
- William L. Shirer, The Rise And Fall of The Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960, ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0, p. 1454.
- The Luftwaffe order differs in different sources: Beevor states it was to attack Potsdamer Platz, but Ziemke states it was to support General Wenck's 12th Army attack (towards Potsdam) - both agree that he was also ordered to make sure Himmler was punished.(Ziemke 1969, p. 118 Beevor 2002, p. 342)
- Ziemke 1969, p. 118.
- Beevor 2002, p. 342.
- "Hitler's Woman Pilot Seized". New York Times. 10 October 1945. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10817FF3B5416738FDDA90994D8415B8588F1D3. Retrieved 2008-07-07. "The question whether Adolf Hitler is dead or alive may be answered by the testimony of Hanna Reitsch, woman Luftwaffe pilot, who was in a Berlin bomb shelter with him a few hours before the Russians captured it. She was arrested in the United States zone of occupation today and is being interrogated."
- Hans Dollinger with Hans Adolf Jacobsen, tr. Arnold Pomerans, The Decline and Fall of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan: A Pictorial History of the Final Days of World War II, New York: Crown, , OCLC 712594, p. 234.
- Piszkiewicz, Dennis, From Nazi Test Pilot to Hitler's Bunker: The Fantastic Flights of Hanna Reitsch, Praeger Publishers, 1997. ISBN 978-0-275-95456-7, from summary by Emerson Thomas McMullen, retrieved 8 January 2010
- The school was commanded by JES de Graft-Hayford, with gliders such as the double-seated Schleicher K7, Slingsby T21, and a Bergfalk, along with a single-seated Schleicher K8.
- Afua Hirsch (16 April 2012). "Hitler's pilot helped Ghana's women to fly". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/apr/16/hitler-pilot-women-fly-ghana. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
- Ron Laytner, "The first astronaut: tiny, daring Hanna", The Deseret News 19 February 1981, pp. C1+, p. 12C.
- "Hanna Reitsch, 67. A Top German Pilot. Much-Decorated Favorite of Hitler Was Last to Fly Out of Berlin Was Cleared by U.S. Hitler Gave Her Iron Cross In Voluntary Suicide Squad.". New York Times. 31 August 1979. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50F13F7345D12728DDDA80B94D0405B898BF1D3. Retrieved 2008-07-07. "Hanna Reitsch, the leading German female pilot and a much-decorated favorite of Hitler who flew the last plane out of Berlin hours before the city fell in 1945, died Friday at her home in Bonn, West Germany. She was 67 years old."
- "Hanna Reitsch, Test Pilot for Hitler". Washington Post. 1 September 1974. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost_historical/access/130126652.html?dids=130126652:130126652&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=SEP+01%2C+1979&author=&pub=The+Washington+Post&desc=Hanna+Reitsch%2C+Test+Pilot+for+Hitler&pqatl=google. Retrieved 2008-07-07. "Aviation pioneer Hanna Reitsch, 67, who flew the last plane out of burning Berlin before the fall of the Nazis in 1945, died Aug. 24, the West Germany radio has reported."
- Wings on my Sleeve pp. 113-114
- "Hanna Reitsch (1912-1979)" at monash.edu.au
- "Hitler: The Last Ten Days (1973)". IMDb.com. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0070184/. Retrieved 8 May 2008.
- "The Death of Adolf Hitler (1973) (TV)". IMDb.com. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0283307/. Retrieved 8 May 2008.
- "Untergang, Der (2004)". IMDb.com. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0363163/. Retrieved 8 May 2008.
- Beevor, Antony (2002), Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Viking-Penguin Books, ISBN 0-670-03041-4
- Ziemke, Earl F. (1969), Battle for Berlin End of the Third Reich Ballantine's Illustrated History of World War II (Battle Book #6), Ballantine Books
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Hanna Reitsch|
- Helden der Wehrmacht - Unsterbliche deutsche Soldaten. Munich: FZ, 2004. ISBN 3-924309-53-1.
Hitler was not voted into power. Von Hindenberg won the election and Hitler only rose to power after Von Hindenberg appointed Hitler as his successor, then left it to him when he died. Once in office, Hitler declared himself absolute leader of Germany. So the only one that really gave him that position was himself.
I would have thought they would have taken the cyanide pill away from Hanna Reitsch at the end of the war, especially as some important people in nazi Germany had already killed themselves with them. But at any rate, at age 67 Hanna Reitsch was old enough to have died of a heart attack.
Some people said Hanna Reitsch was Hitler's girlfriend, a story that doesn't really seem to have anything to it. It's more likely that people simply linked them because she was famous, she was around Hitler, and she was even one of the last people to have seen him alive.
Another story is that Hanna Reitsch was a female fighter pilot. She flew some fighter planes as a test pilot, but never flew them in combat. There were no female fighter pilots in Germany, although there were some in Russia. Hanna Reitsch did volunteer to be a suicide pilot, but was turned down.
Then there's the story that Hanna Reitsch was the first astronaut. This could be due to confusion between the V-1, which was jet propelled, and the V-2, which was a rocket. The Germans had a piloted version of the V-2 rocket in the planning stage when the war ended, so it never flew.
But she was certainly a famous pilot, and another thing that isn't always obvious in some accounts is that she was also a glamour girl. One of the things the nazis wanted her for was propaganda, because she was photogenic. She can even be compared to Marlene Dietrich and Carole Landis on the allied side in that she entertained the troops on the Eastern front by making personal appearences in an effort to help keep up their morale.
But there was a difference in that Hanna Reitsch was in the employ of an agressor nation which was largely responsible for the war. The people of Germany had been told that if they followed Hitler, he would save them, but he did nothing of the kind. His war brought nothing but death and destruction to his people.
Hanna Reitsch lived on after the war, but for the rest of her life, she was seen as being in the shadow of the swastika.
1936- Hanna Reitsch with Seeadler Glider.
1936. Hanna Reitsch is frequently shown shaking hands in these pictures.
South American glider tour - the pilots and their planes.
Another picture from the same tour, with everyone named.
Hanna Reitsch flying the Fw 61, one of the first hellicopters, in 1938.
Hann Reitsch flies the hellicopter inside a stadium.
Hanna Reitsch in the cockpit of an early hellicopter. Erst Udet, the shorter man, was another famous flyer..
Hanna Reitsch with Alexander Lippisch and Willy Messerschmitt.
Adolph Hitler with Hanna Reitsch
Werner Von Braun with Hanna Reitsch, after the war.
Karl Ritter and Hanna Reitsch in 1968.
Hanna Reitsch with Jimmy Doolittle.
Piloted version of the V-1
Original and piloted versions of the V-1.
Messerschmitt 163 Komet, which was rocket powered and dangerous. Hanna Reitsch had a bad landing while testing this plane and was seriously injured.
Me 262, which was jet propelled.
He 162, another jet test-flown by Hanna Reitsch..
Aircraft of World War II:
Hanna Reitsch at Grey Falcon.com:
Hanna Reitsch at Carolyn Yeager.com:
Ladies Love Taildraggers ( Aviatrix site ):
V-1 "Buzz Bomb":
Woman Pilot Magazine:
Women Pilots In WW2 ( US ):